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Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji

Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji

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Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji

The 'Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji' is the central religious scripture of Sikhism, regarded by Sikhs as the final, sovereign and eternal living Guru following the lineage of the ten human Gurus of the religion. The Adi Granth, the first rendition, was compiled by the fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjan (1563–1606).

The current form of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji was finalised by Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru. Guru Gobind Singh, who did not add any of his own Gurbani; however, he added all 115 of Guru Tegh Bahadur's Gurbani to the Adi Granth, and affirmed the text as his successor. This second rendition became known as Guru Granth Sahib. After Guru Gobind Singh re-joined with God, Baba Deep Singh and Bhai Mani Singh prepared many copies of the work for distribution.

Compilation of Adi Granth

Guru Arjan wanted to establish the credibility of the Sikh religion as a casteless and secular society. In Sikhism worship consisted of singing the hymns of Gurus (also known as Gurbani). Guru Arjan wished to lay down the exact Gurbani to be sung and performed by the Sikhs. This would also increase consistency and hinder divergent tenets.

Gurbani and Bhagatbani

The major principle of compilation was that verses which praised God and denounced superstition and caste were to be included in the Sri Guru Granth Sahib. As regards the compositions of Bhagats, generally the same principle was observed. Sri Guru Arjan Sahib Ji included the verses of those who believed in the unity of God and brotherhood of man.

The Sri Granth Sahib was to be broad based. It could contain with itself principles of monotheism and the Bhakti cult. No puristic or linguistic tests were applied to the compositions. Foreign words, coined words and current words were put into this literary dish. In selecting the musical scores-Ragas, the Guru employed homely and simple metaphors. Generally speaking, hymns of devotion, the glory of God, men's spiritual efforts and equality of men and women were incorported in the Guru Granth Sahib.

The contents of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, originally called the Adi Granth, contains compositions of the first five Gurus, the ninth Guru, fifteen Bhagats (Jai Dev, Nam Dev, Trilochan, Parmanand, Sadna, Ramanand, Beni, Dhanna, Pipa, Sain, Kabir, Ravidas, Farid, Surday, Bhikhan) and eleven Bhattas (Mathra, Jalap, Harbans, Talya, Salya, Bhal, Kulh Sahar, Nal, Kirat, Gayand, Sadrang).

Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji contains 5894 hymns. The number of stanzas according to Pincott is 15575. 974 hymns are written by the first Guru, 62 by the second Guru, 907 by the third, 679 by the fourth, 2218 by the fifth, and 115 by the ninth. Among the remaining 922 hymns of Bhagats, the highest number of hymns (541) is by Kabir.

Sri Guru Granth Sahib
Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji - The Sikh holy scripture, which has words written by the Sikh Gurus personally.
The above Saroop is a padd-chhed Guru Granth Sahib (split words) and is used to learn from.
The authentic originals are written in larivaar (continuous writing).

Music forms the basis of the classification of the hymns. Under each Raag, the hymns are arranged in the following order :

1. Chaupadas-hymns of four verses.
2. Ashtapadas-hymns of eight verses.
3. Long poems.
4. Chhants-Verses of six lines.
5. Short poems.
6. Vars consisting of two or more Saloks and a Pauri.
7. Poems of Bhagats in the same order.

The hymns are further classified according to the musical clef (Ghar) in which each is to be sung. Although according to the index of Ragas in Raag Mala, the total number of main Ragas is 84, the Guru has used 31 main Raags with combinations forming a total of 60. So the Granth is arranged firstly according to the Raga, secondly, according to the nature or metre of the poem, thirdly authorship, and fourthly the clef. The ordinary edition of Adi Granth Sahib contains 1430 Ang's as under;

1. Japji - Ang 1-7.
2. Shabad Kirtan (musical hymns) - Ang 8-1351.
3. Slok Sanskriti - Ang 1352-1359.
4. Gatha - Ang 1359-1361.
5. Funhe - Ang 136l-1362.
6. Chaubole - Ang 1363-1364.
7. Sloks of Kabir and Farid - Ang 1364-1384.
8. Swayyas of the Gurus and the Bhattas - Ang 1384-1408.
9. Sloks of the Gurus - Ang 1409-1429.
10. Raag Mala, index of musical measures - Ang 1429-1430.

A Raga is a complex structure of musical melody used in Sikh classical music. It has set rules of how to build a melody which can ignite a certain mood in the reciter as well as the listener. In the Guru Granth Sahib each Raga is a chapter or a section by itself. The main list of 31 Ragas with a direct relationship to human moods is given below.

1. Aasa – Making effort;
2. Gujri – Satisfaction, softness of heart, sadness;
3. Dhanasari – Inspiration, motivation;
4. Sri Raag – Satisfaction and balance;
5. Maajh – Loss, beautification;
6. Gauri – Seriousness;
7. Devgandhari – No specific feeling but the Raag has a softness;
8. Bihaagra – Beautification;
9. Vadhans – Vairaag, loss (that is why Alahniya is sung in this Raag when someone passes away);
10. Sorath – Motivation;
11. Jaitsri – Softness, satisfaction, sadness;
12. Todi – This being a flexible Raag it is apt for communicating many feelings;
13. Bhairaagi – Sadness, (The Gurus have, however, used it for the message of Bhakti);
14. Tilang – Favourite Raag of muslims. It denotes feeling of beautification and yearning;
15. Soohi – Joy and separation;
16. Bilaaval – Happiness;
17. Gond – Strangeness, surprise, beauty;
18. Raamkali – Calmness;
19. Nat Narayan – Happiness;
20. Maali Gaura – Happiness;
21. Maaru – Giving up of cowardice;
22. Tukhari – Beautification;
23. Kedara – Love and beautification;
24. Bhairao – Seriousness, brings stability of mind;
25. Basant – Happiness;
26. Sarang – Sadness;
27. Malaar – Separation;
28. Kaanrha – Bhakti and seriousness.
29. Kaliaan – Bhakti Ras;
30. Parbhati – Bhakti and seriousness;
31. Jaijavanti – Viraag or loss;

Use of all these Ragas takes a person closer to God because all the moods are catered for. Music, as it is, calms the nerves. Balanced music through the classical Ragas makes a comprehensive experience for the devout. Even scientifically it has been proved in lab experiments that plants grow healthier and cattle give more milk when they are 'fed' with classical music.

Mishrat Raag

This is when two separate raags are put together to create a new raag. For example, Raag Gauri has 12 variations: one is the original form of Raag Gauri, and the further 11 all contain the main identity and characteristic of Gauri as their foundation and are then influenced by a secondary raag.

Raag and Raagini

Within the content of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, no shabad has the definition "Raagini" in the title – all shabads clearly state "Raag" (raga), and consequently there are not 31 raags and 29 raaginis in the Sri Guru Granth Sahib as is sometimes claimed, but 60 raags of equal and independent status.

Out of the 60 raags or melodies, 39 are classical raags or classical melodies and 21 are mishrat raags or mishra raags which are mixed melodies created by blending together two raags or melodies to create an entirely new and independent raag or melody. The primary raag or melody contains the main foundation, identity and characteristic which is then influenced by the secondary raag or melody.

The 60 Raags of Sri Guru Granth Sahib in order of appearance;

1. Aasa - Ang 8
Aasa has strong emotions of inspiration and courage. This Raag gives the listener the determination and ambition to put aside any excuses and to proceed with the necessary action to achieve the aim. It generates feelings of passion and zeal to succeed and the energy generated from these feelings enables the listener to find the strength from within to achieve success, even when the achievement seems difficult. The determined mood of this Raag ensures that failure is not an option and motivates the listener to be inspired.

2. Gujari - Ang 10
If there is a perfect simile for Raag Gujari, it would be that of a person isolated in the desert, who has their hands cupped, holding water. However, it is only when the water begins to slowly seep through their joined hands that the person comes to realise the real value and importance of the water. Similarly Raag Gujari leads the listener to realise and become aware of passing time and in this way comes to value the precious nature of time itself. The revelation brings the listener to an awareness and admission of their own death and mortality, making them utilise their remaining lifetime more wisely.

3. Gauri Deepki - Ang 12 (Mishrat Raag)
In the Guru Granth Sahib, there is one shabad (hymn) under the title Raag Gauri Deepaki. In this shabad, Sohila is a lorrie (lullaby), which is narrating a kind of bedtime story. This Raag generates feelings of warmth and security, just like a mother singing a lullaby to her child. Lullabies were traditionally used not only as a way of comforting a child, but also as a means in which mothers shared their past experiences and knowledge. Similarly this Raag enlightens the listener through knowledge and experience and brings them to the realisation that to gain the truth, you must first realise that you are in darkness. This enlightened state gives the listener a feeling of certainty, fearlessness and a new hope for the future.

4. Dhanasari - Ang 13
Dhanasari is a sense of being completely carefree. This sensation arises from a feeling of contentment and richness from the things we have in our lives and gives the listener a positive and optimistic attitude towards the future.

5. Gauri Poorbi - Ang 13 (Mishrat Raag)
Gauri Poorbi contains strong emotions of experience along with feelings of preparation, in order to go further and to achieve more. Although there are confident feelings in this Raag, there is a sense of uncertainty as there is a heart felt request for help to achieve the desired goal. The sentiments of this Raag are well considered assessments of the circumstances, without excess confidence or extreme helplessness.

6. Sri Raag - Ang 14
The basis of this Raag is steeped in the traditions of mainstream Indian Classical music. Sri Raag is serious and thought provoking in its nature and creates an atmosphere where the listener is led to heed the advice given therein. The listener (the mind) is made aware of the truth of the message and with this education is given the strength to face the future with both humility and the gained knowledge.

7. Maajh - Ang 94
Raag Maajh was composed by the Fifth Sikh Guru (Sri Guru Arjan Sahib Ji). The Raag's origins are based in Punjabi folk music and its essence was inspired by the Majha regions traditions and the game of waiting and yearning for the return of a loved one. The feelings evoked by this Raag have often been compared to that of a mother waiting for her child to return after a long period of separation. She has an anticipation and hope for the child's return, although at the same moment she is painfully aware of the uncertainty of their return home. This Raag brings to life the emotion of extreme love and this is highlighted by the sorrow and anguish of separation.

8. Gauri Guarairi - Ang 151 (Mishrat Raag)
Gauri Guarairi contains a mixture of calmness and control in feeling, however the emotional message of the Raag is open and truthful in its approach. The emotions are conveyed in a direct and disciplined way. The balanced and focused character of this Raag is evident in its structure, in that its scale is restricted to madh saptak (middle scale).

9. Gauri - Ang 151
Gauri creates a mood where the listener is encouraged to strive harder in order to achieve an objective. However, the encouragement given by the Raag does not allow the ego to increase. This therefore creates the atmosphere where the listener is encouraged, but still prevented from becoming arrogant and self-important.

10. Gauri Dakhani - Ang 152
Gauri Dakhani has a similar nature to Gauri; however, the South Indian style of this Raag, including the taal (rhythm) highlights the strict and disciplined aspect of Gauri.

11. Gauri Chaiti - Ang 154 (Mishrat Raag)
Gauri Chaiti generates a deliberate sensation of fear by creating a conscious reminder of what may occur if we loose the things we take for granted. It awakens feelings of panic and regret, by exposing the listener to the possible outcome of what might happen should this warning not be heeded.

12. Gauri Bairagan - Ang 156 (Mishrat Raag)
As the title suggests Gauri Bairagan is a Raag of bairaag (sadness of separation). The listener is left with an intense feeling of sorrow and emptiness. However, the balance of Raag Gauri ensures that this sense of loss and sadness motivates the listener to try to discover exactly what is missing. Gauri Bairagan therefore evokes feelings of sadness, which become a lesson, as opposed to creating a sense of depression.

13. Gauri Poorbi Deepki - Ang 157 (Mishrat Raag)
The tone of this Raag is that of self-assessment with a positive attitude of improvement. It creates an atmosphere of constantly progressing with confidence and experience, as well as instilling a positive belief of enduring achievement.

14. Gauri Maajh - Ang 172 (Mishrat Raag)
Gauri Majh is a well-planed emotional act, which reaches out to fulfil a yearning created by the Raag. This yearning is similar to that of Raag Maajh's regret, hope and anticipation, however in this instance it is created deliberately in order to sway the listener to react to the longing.

15. Gauri Malva - Ang 214 (Mishrat Raag)
Gauri Malva is based on Punjabi Folk music and is influenced by the Malva region of Punjab and the Malvaee hospitality. The nature of this Raag can be compared to the thoughtful, very serious, yet caring advice given by a true friend. The Raag persuades the listener with such truth and friendliness, that it is impossible to disagree, even if the listener does not like the advice being given.

16. Gauri Mala - Ang 214 (Mishrat Raag)
The essence of Gauri Mala is a combination of good, pure, true and positive thoughts added together one by one. There is a feeling of having worked hard and an increased energy, which encourages more devotion towards the truth.

17. Gauri Sorath - Ang 330 (Mishrat Raag)
Gauri Sorath has a definite feeling of attraction and appeal, which woos the listener's attention to the subject matter or target. However, the feelings of being enticed and lured are balanced with a sense of duty and realisation, of needing to obey the warning given.

18. Aasa Kafi - Ang 365 (Mishrat Raag)
Aasa Kafi has a carefree and self-assured nature. It is confident in its outlook and does not hold onto any false hopes. The feelings of boundless energy, along with the confidence gained by previous experiences, create an inspirational atmosphere for the listener.

19. Asavari - Ang 369
Asavari has an atmosphere of real energy and enthusiasm, which encourages the listener to complete the necessary tasks. However, the mood of this Raag is genuine and there is therefore no pretence of showing off its hard-working nature.

20. Aasa Asavari - Ang 409 (Mishrat Raag)
Aasa Asavari provides a sense of assurance to achieve your desired goal with courage, love and confidence. It is a precise direction toward achieving a set outcome, with confidence and positivity fuelled with a burst of energy. The nature of this raag is to produce a strong sense of capability in the listener, converting energy into passion with the motivation to repeat this positivity. The strength of this raag churns out the best of a personality providing the individual with the necessary knowledge to bring thoughts into action.

21. Devgandhari - Ang 527
Devgandhari conveys the feeling of satisfaction that comes from making an achievement. These emotions make the listener feel empowered to do more and diminish any feelings of laziness. This state of satisfaction is that of extreme happiness and contentment, and leaves the listener with the feeling of being in paradise.

22. Bihagarha - Ang 537
The mood of Bihagarha is that of extreme sadness and pain, which gives rise to the need to find peace and understanding. The heightened emotional state of sadness is only harnessed by the craving for truth and meaning.

23. Vadhans - Ang 557
Vadhans is based on Punjabi Folk music and is set in the traditions of ˜Ghoree, Suhag and Alahania. The feelings instilled by this Raag can be compared to those of a bride on the day of her wedding; she is happy and sad. Although she is going to her groom, who fills her with hope and joy, she is also sad to be leaving her family.

24. Vadhans Dakhani - Ang 580
The mood of this Raag is very similar to Raag Vadhans, however due to its South Indian style of expression, it is more disciplined in its nature.

25. Sorath - Ang 595
Sorath conveys the feeling of having such a strong belief in something that you want to keep repeating the experience. In fact this feeling of certainty is so strong that you become the belief and live that belief. The atmosphere of Sorath is so powerful, that eventually even the most unresponsive listener will be attracted.

26. Jaitsri - Ang 696
Jaitsri conveys the heartfelt emotion of not being able to live without someone. Its mood is preoccupied with feelings of dependence and an overwhelming sense of desperately reaching out to be with that person.

27. Todi - Ang 711
Todi consists of both wisdom and humbleness. It is through these sentiments that the Raag takes a simple approach to explain things that we may be aware of, but fail to ponder upon. The Raag draws the attention of the listener to contemplate these things and gives an explanation with such conviction, that we are compelled to agree.

28. Bairarhi - Ang 719
Bairarhi stimulates the feeling of improving and continuing with a task, which has already been accomplished. It is an unmoving belief that what has been achieved is true and positive, which leads to a hunger and desire to progress to the next stage. Although there is immense confidence in the achievement, there is no conceit or vanity in the accomplishment.

29. Tilang - Ang 721
Tilang is full of the feeling of having tried hard to impress, but the feeling that the effort made has not been appreciated. However, the atmosphere is not of anger or upset, but of brooding, as the person you are trying to impress is very dear to you.

30. Tilang Kafi - Ang 726 (Mishrat Raag)
As with Tilang, this Raag contains the feeling that your effort has been unappreciated, when trying to impress someone. However, in contrast to Raag Tilang, the individual is unperturbed by this feeling. This differentiating aspect arises from the deep love for the person concerned, which prevents the individual from becoming annoyed at the apparent lack of approval.

31. Soohi - Ang 728
Soohi is an expression of such devotion that the listener experiences feelings of extreme closeness and undying love. The listener is bathed in that love and genuinely comes to know what it means to adore.

32. Soohi Kafi - Ang 751 (Mishrat Raag)
Soohi Kafi expresses feelings of deep love and security, like that of a child and a parent. A young child feels secure and safe, when surrounded in their parents love. The love felt is so strong that there are no worries and the individual gains a certain confidence from being so secure.

33. Soohi Lalit - Ang 793 (Mishrat Raag)
Soohi Lalit contains feelings of emotional resolve. However, there is also a volatile characteristic in that although there is love in these emotions, there is a willingness to step over the line to attain the goal.

34. Bilaaval - Ang 795
Bilaaval conveys the emotions of great happiness that come from having attained a goal or achieved an aim. It is an overwhelming feeling of fulfilment, satisfaction and joy, that is experienced when the accomplishments is very important and dear to you. The happiness felt is like laughing out loud, there is no planning or any ulterior motive; it's just a natural expression of heartfelt happiness arising from a sense of achievement.

35. Bilaaval Dakhani - Ang 843
This Raag is full of energy, which is shown by the fast rhythm and singing of the South Indian style of expression. The feelings of Bilaaval Dakhani are of confidence and happiness, which arises from having achieved the unachievable.

36. Gond - Ang 859
Gond is an expression of triumph, however these feelings are balanced and in perspective ensuring that there is also an aspect of humility. Therefore, although there is a sense of knowing and understanding the achievement, there is not a feeling of becoming obsessed or getting lost in the achievement itself.

37. Bilaaval Gond - Ang 874 (Mishrat Raag)
Bilaaval Gond consists of emotions of courage and conviction. The atmosphere created by the Raag is that of abstract happiness, however it is still disciplined enough to not be out of control. This Raag expresses its emotions poignantly, with insight and has a thoughtful strategy. It expresses feelings of confidence and happiness, but without any pride.

38. Raamkali - Ang 876
The emotions in Raamkali are like those of a wise teacher disciplining their student. The student is aware of the pain of learning, but is still conscious of the fact that ultimately it is for the best. In this way Raamkali conveys the change from all that we are familiar with, to something we are certain will be better.

39. Raamkali Dakhani - Ang 907
The emotions created by Raamkali Dakhani are those of change from old to new and there is a surety that this alteration is advantageous. These feelings are highlighted and emphasised by the South Indian rhythm and style of expression.

40. Nat Narayan - Ang 975
Nat Narayan consists of feelings of hastiness and impatience, however simultaneously there is stability and control. Although there is control in the Raag, there is still the impression that it is unbalanced and prone to topple at any time.

41. Nat - Ang 975
Nat creates the impression of being wild and uncontrollable and appears extreme in its feeling. It conveys the feeling of being out of control and on the edge, however it returns from the brink, by reestablishing control and stability, and hence creating a sense of relief. This Raag uses its expertise in this way to create feelings of suspense.

42. Maali Gaura - Ang 984
Maali Gaura conveys the confidence of an expert, whose knowledge is self-evident in both their outlook and actions. This knowledge is learned through experience and therefore creates an air of coolness. However, this sense of coolness is an aspect of true happiness because you have learned how to manage things with expertise and skill.

43. Maaru - Ang 989
Maaru was traditionally sung on the battlefield in preparation for war. This Raag has an aggressive nature, which creates an inner strength and power to express and emphasise the truth, regardless of the consequences. Maaru's nature conveys the fearlessness and strength that ensures the truth is spoken, no matter what the cost.

44. Maaru Kafi - Ang 1014 (Mishrat Raag)
Although Maaru Kafi is forceful and blunt in its nature, it still expresses its emotions in a sweet and attractive way. This Raag is uncompromising in its nature, yet it retains the ability and charm to win the listener over with its relaxed and self-assured approach. As the listener, it makes you feel willing to listen even though the sentiments are harsh and direct.

45. Maaru Dakhani - Ang 1033
Although Maaru Kafi is forceful and blunt in its nature, it still expresses its emotions in a sweet and attractive way. This Raag is uncompromising in its nature, yet it retains the ability and charm to win the listener over with its relaxed and self-assured approach. As the listener, it makes you feel willing to listen even though the sentiments are harsh and direct.

46. Tukhari - Ang 1107
Tukhari conveys the soul's strong ambition to highlight the greatness of the creator to the mind. This goal is of paramount importance to the soul and it will therefore, not give up even if stubborn mind is unresponsive. This Raag illustrates the soul's focus on its goal, by conveying its message to the mind directly and then adopting a softer approach. The feelings of this Raag are dominated by the soul's burning desire to convince the mind to follow its plan of enlightenment and hence becoming one with Akaal (God).

47. Kedara - Ang 1118
Kedara expresses and makes the mind aware of the true character and nature of the soul. It conveys the emotions of honesty, integrity and truthfulness in a practical and caring way. This approach highlights the soul's character and is memorable, so that the mind is made aware, without arousing cynicism.

48. Bhairao - Ang 1125
Bhairao embodies the soul's faith and heartfelt devotion towards the creator. It is a kind of fanaticism, where there is a feeling of not being aware or caring about anything else. The emotions conveyed are those of contentment and of being absorbed in a steadfast belief or faith. In this Raag, the soul is relaying the happiness that the mind could potentially experience if it joined in with this devotion.

49. Basant - Ang 1168
Basant denotes the changing of the season and the newness of spring. This Raag encourages the mind to brush away its selfishness, just like spring-cleaning removes all the cobwebs and creates a fresh start. There are feelings of hope and expectation of a new beginning and the start of a new cycle. However, these emotions are not dependent on the physical change of the season, but are an encouragement of an internal effort to change.

50. Basant Hindol - Ang 1170 (Mishrat Raag)
Basant Hindol conveys the freshness and happiness of a new start and expresses the type of contentment, which comes from working hard to make a change. This Raag is full of hope and creates a sense of being at ease and being satisfied because a new chapter is beginning.

51. Sarang - Ang 1197
Sarangs character is soothing and has the ability to extinguish the minds smouldering selfishness and negative nature. The emotions of Sarang quench the minds burning desires, by expressing and highlighting the souls pure and true thoughts. This is a positive and fulfilling change.

52. Malaar - Ang 1254
Malhar is a communication of feelings from the soul, to show the mind how to become cool and refreshed. The mind is always burning with the desire to reach its goals quickly and without effort, however the emotions conveyed in this Raag are able to bring composure and fulfilment to the mind. It is able to bring the mind into this calmness, bringing a sense of satisfaction and contentment.

53. Kaanrha - Ang 1294
Kaanrha invokes feelings of being overcome by a personality, which is so impressive that its character is difficult to stop thinking about. The personality conveyed has a magnetism, which makes you think of them as your own and is able to win you over with its remarkable qualities and outlook.

54. Kaliaan - Ang 1319
Kaliaan has a forceful, yet flexible nature. It conveys a desire for something and a resolve to attain it, by whatever means possible. Although determined in its desire, Kaliaan sometimes uses an accommodating approach and at other times has an aggressive approach, in order to reach its goal. This Raag has a determined, forceful, yet persuasive character, through which it fulfils its desire.

55. Kaliaan Bhopali - Ang 1321
Kaliaan Bhopali's nature is direct and insistent. Just as in Kaliaan, this Raag conveys the feeling of determination to fulfil its desires. However, in contrast it is not flexible in its approach, as the desired goal is tackled head-on and in a regimented fashion. There is no hesitation and it is only focused on its goal.

56. Parbhati Bibhas - Ang 1327
Parbhati Bibhas expresses the feelings of compromise between the mind and the soul; a common understanding between the selfishness of the mind and the devotion of the soul evolves. The atmosphere created is like the calmness and serenity of daybreak, along with a sense of preparation for the day to unfold. The partaal rhythm represents the change in the method, which is induced by compromise, however it also highlights the balance of concentration.

57. Parbhati - Ang 1327
The emotions conveyed in Parbhati are those of extreme devotion; there is an intense confidence and love for the entity it is devoted to. This affection arises from knowledge, common sense and a detailed study. There is therefore an understanding and a considered will to devote itself to that entity.

58. Parbhati Dakhani - Ang 1344
The nature of Parbhati Dakhani is very similar to that of Parbhati, except that the feelings of devotion are more disciplined. This discipline arises from the South Indian style of expression of this Raag.

59. Bibhas Parbhati - Ang 1347
Bibhas Parbhati has a self-assured character and has a sense of certainty, which arises from the knowledge gained through awareness. It conveys the wisdom achieved from learning, which inspires contentment. However, this wisdom is not arrogant, but is gentle in its persuasion because there is not a need to show-off this knowledge, but a desire to share it, so the recipient is able to learn.

60. Jaijavanti - Ang 1352
Jaijavanti expresses the feeling of happiness and satisfaction of achievement, however it simultaneously conveys the sadness of losing. An apt simile for this Raag is that of a king winning a battle, however he is then told that his son has perished on the battlefield. This Raag conveys a sense of having to put your duty first, no matter what your inner feelings may be. The duality of the emotions of joy and sorrow help to keep you stable and prevent you revelling in your own achievement.

Characteristics Of The Guru Granth Sahib

At the end, Guru Arjan Sahib has summed up the nature of the Granth Sahib in Mundavani; "In this dish are placed three things; Truth, Contentment and Wisdom. These are seasoned with the Name of God which is the basis of all; whoever eats and enjoy it, shall be saved." Guru Arjan's aim was to provide a book of universal religion, for everybody, everywhere. He wanted to guide and regenerate all types of people. "It is a thing which you cannot afford to neglect. You must take it to your hearts."

The Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji is both metaphysics and ethics, the science of reality and the art of union with reality. It gives us a vision of truth, and it opens up new paths for the mind of man. It is a work of divine inspiration, primarily spiritual and incidentally philosophical. It is a collection of devotional poems and prayers. The Gurus accept certain fundamentals laws like Karma, cycle of birth and death, Maya, etc. Guru Arjan incorporated the hymns of some Bhagats who subscribed to the unity of God and the cult of Bhagti. Such hymns enshrine the essence of four centuries (thirteenth to sixteenth) of Indian thought in simple but telling words. Moreover the verses are set to appropriate musical scores.

The Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji is an authentic scripture. The compositions of the Sikh Gurus were preserved, and subsequently collected by Guru Arjan. When the original copy (which is now at Kartarpur) could not be obtained. Guru Gobind Singh dictated it to Bhai Mani Singh.

Guru Arjan Sahib who compiled it, installed it with all reverence and devotion at Sri Harmandir Sahib, Amritsar in 1604. He emphasised the importance of this Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji in the following shabad (hymn);

The race of man is saved!
God's word goes to the people, blessing them,
and bestowing immortality on them.
My house is full of the light,
of the song of life to-day!
This is the staff on which the old and the miserable,
the stray and rich shall lean.
In their distress, and obtain solace,
People of God! come, assemble, live in this light
Dissolve this song into your soul.
Rejoice and partake of this immortal feast.

Baba Budha carried the Guru Granth Sahib on his head. Guru Arjan Sahib walked behind waving the whisk. Musicians recited hymns. Baba Budha opened the Guru Granth Sahib and the following hymn of Guru Arjan was read on the occasion.

ਸੂਹੀ ਮਹਲਾ ੫ ॥
Sūhī mėhlā 5 ||
Soohi, Fifth Mehl.

ਸੰਤਾ ਕੇ ਕਾਰਜਿ ਆਪਿ ਖਲੋਇਆ ਹਰਿ ਕੰਮੁ ਕਰਾਵਣਿ ਆਇਆ ਰਾਮ ॥
Sanṯā ke kāraj āp kẖalo▫i▫ā har kamm karāvaṇ ā▫i▫ā rām ||
God has stood up to resolve the affairs of the saints; God has come to complete their tasks.

ਧਰਤਿ ਸੁਹਾਵੀ ਤਾਲੁ ਸੁਹਾਵਾ ਵਿਚਿ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤ ਜਲੁ ਛਾਇਆ ਰਾਮ ॥
Ḏẖaraṯ suhāvī ṯāl suhāvā vicẖ amriṯ jal cẖẖā▫i▫ā rām ||
The land is beautiful, and the pool is beautiful; within it is contained the ambrosial water.

ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤ ਜਲੁ ਛਾਇਆ ਪੂਰਨ ਸਾਜੁ ਕਰਾਇਆ ਸਗਲ ਮਨੋਰਥ ਪੂਰੇ ॥
Amriṯ jal cẖẖā▫i▫ā pūran sāj karā▫i▫ā sagal manorath pūre ||
The ambrosial water is filling it, and my job is perfectly complete; all my desires are fulfilled.

ਜੈ ਜੈ ਕਾਰੁ ਭਇਆ ਜਗ ਅੰਤਰਿ ਲਾਥੇ ਸਗਲ ਵਿਸੂਰੇ ॥
Jai jai kār bẖa▫i▫ā jag anṯar lāthe sagal visūre ||
Congratulations are pouring in from all over the world; all my sorrows are eliminated.

ਪੂਰਨ ਪੁਰਖ ਅਚੁਤ ਅਬਿਨਾਸੀ ਜਸੁ ਵੇਦ ਪੁਰਾਣੀ ਗਾਇਆ ॥
Pūran purakẖ acẖuṯ abẖināsī jas veḏ purāṇī gā▫i▫ā ||
The vedas and the puraanas sing the praises of the perfect, unchanging, imperishable God.

ਅਪਨਾ ਬਿਰਦੁ ਰਖਿਆ ਪਰਮੇਸਰਿ ਨਾਨਕ ਨਾਮੁ ਧਿਆਇਆ ॥੧॥
Apnā biraḏ rakẖi▫ā parmesar Nānak nām ḏẖi▫ā▫i▫ā ||1||
God has kept it's promise, and confirmed it's nature; Nanak meditates on the Naam, the name of God.

~ Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji, Guru Arjan, Raag Soohi, Ang 783

The Granth contains Gurbani or the Guru's teaching. It is the Guru incarnate. Guru Gobind Singh installed Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji as the timeless Guru. Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji is a sort of living Guru in the midst of the Sikhs. Guru means guide or torch bearer. Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji gives light and good counsel. Those who are in difficulty or trouble read Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji and obtain solace and comfort from its hymns. It is used by the sikhs at the time of birth, marriage and death.

Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji is regarded as the body of the Guru and is kept on a raised platform under a canopy, covered in clean clothes. A Chaur Sahib is waved over it when it is read. One must put off one's shoes, wash the feet and cover the head before taking one's seat before the Guru. This is a mode of reverence and not idolatory.

Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji is a treasure of divine knowledge and mysticism. Guru Nanak says, "My mind is a temple of love. My body is a robe divine. The sacred nectar flows in the temple. The word is my breath and the song is my blood." It is therefore in the fitness of things that both Sikhs and non-Sikhs show great respect to Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji.

Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji as Literature:

Punjabi language is said to have emerged from Apbhransh about 1000 A.D. In the twelfth century, Baba Farid wrote his saloks in Lehndi dialect. During the next three centuries, India was attacked by muslim adventurers and, therefore, heroic verses known as Vars became popular. During this period, the Yogis developed a dialect of their own which was called the saint-language and contained terms of systems of Indian philoso-phy. There was very little literature worth the name before the Sikh Gurus. Moreover, Panjabi was regarded as a language of the vulgar by the aristocratic and Brahamanic sections of Hindu society. The Yogis also wrote in the Sanskrit. Some Sanskrit! saloks, are included in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji.

The Sikh Gurus preached their principles in the language of the masses. The adopted popular forms of poetry such as salok Chhant, Bara Mahan, Thhittin, Bawan Akhari, Var (heroic ballad). The Var is also a song of praise. The Gurus praised the Name and at the same time denounced egoistic pursuits.

The Sikh Gurus enriched Punjabi literature. The crude and poor language became in their hands a treasury of thoughts. They absorbed the diction of saint-language and current philosophies. In Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji are found words associated with the Vedas, Vedanta, Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shakatism, Buddhism, Jainism and Islam. Panjabi was also enriched by words of saint-language which owed its origin to Sanskrit. Persian and Arabic words came through Islam.

The Japji, Asa-di-var of Guru Nanak, the Anand of Guru Amar Das, the Sukhmani of Guru Arjan are rightly esteemed as classics of Panjabi literature. The verses of the ninth Guru are included in the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. Formalism and ritualism of Hinduism and Islam have been condemned. Great spiritual truths have been illustrated through simple and homely similes. The devotional hymns are full of sincerity and emotion. Guru Nanak's compositions are pithy and pregnant with meaning. He has not only touched spiritual problems but also social and human relationships.

NOTE: The above duly audited text under the heading 'Sikhism' is derived from the contents of the Book "The Quintessence of Sikhism" written by Dr. Gobind Singh Mansukhani.

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