Sasaram, sometimes also spelled as Sahsaram, is the administrative headquarter of the Rohtas district in the State of Bihar.
Sasaram is the birthplace of the Afghan king Sher Shah Suri, who ruled over Delhi, much of northern India, what is now Pakistan, and eastern Afghanistan for five years, after defeating the mughal emperor Humayun.
After his death, he was followed as king by his son Islam Shah, then Adil Shah, and finally by the Hindu king Hemu, or Hem Chandra Vikramaditya.
Many of Sher Shah Suri's governmental practices were adopted by the Mughals and the British Raj including taxation, administration, and the building of a paved road from Kabul to Bengal.
Sher Shah Suri's 122 feet (37 m) red sandstone tomb, built in the Indo-Afghan style stands in the middle of an artificial lake at Sasaram.
The tomb of Sher Shah's father Hasan Khan Suri is also at Sasaram, and stands in the middle of green field at Sherganj, which is known as Sukha Rauza. About a kilometer to the North West of Sher Shah's tomb lies the incomplete and dilapidated tomb of his son and successor, Islam Shah Suri. The fort of Sher Shah Suri at Rohtasgarh is in Sasaram. This fort has a history dating back to the 7th century AD. It was built by Raja Harishchandra in the name of his son Rohitashwa, son of illustrious king Harishchandra, known for his truthfulness.
The fort also served as the headquarters of Raja Man Singh during his reign as the governor of Bihar and Bengal under the regime of Akbar. The Rohtaas fort in Bihar should not be confused with another fort of the same name, near Jhelum, Punjab, in what is now Pakistan. The Rohtaas fort in Sasaram was also built by Sher Shah Suri, during the period when Humayun was exiled from hindustan.
There are 2 Historic Sikh Gurdwaras at Sasaram.
Bhai Phagu Mal, (also known as Chacha Phagu Mal) a Gursikh of Sri Guru Amar Das Ji, was sent by Guru Ji to spread the message of Sikhism. Guru Amar Das sent manji's in different directions, out of them one was sent to Sasaram, Bihar through Bhai Phagu Mal Ji. Once Bhai Phagu Mal reached Bihar, he lived at the location of Gurdwara Sri Chacha Phaggu Mal for most of his life and became the caretaker.
During his stay, Bhai Phagu Mal would collect donations and submit them to the Guru's during his regular visits to them. Bhai Phagu Mal continued this practice with 6 different Guru Sahib's. Bhai Phagu Mal was the second person in the Sikh history (after Baba Budha Ji) who had met Six Guru Sahib's. However, once Bhai Phagu Mal became old he couldn't travel and prayed for Guru Ji to visit him one last time before he re-joined with God.
When Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji went on a tour of the east Guru Ji heard Bhai Phagu Mal's prayers and decided to see him. Bhai Phagu Mal was lying on his bed when Guru Tegh Bahadur arrived outside. Someone told Bhai Phagu Mal that Guru Sahib had come to see and Guru Ji come in. Bhai Sahib said that if indeed Guru Sahib was there then he wouldn't need his permission to enter. A small door opened (the door is still preserved in the Gurdwara Sahib) and Guru Tegh Bahadur entered. Guru Tegh Bahadur addressed Bhai Phaggu Mal Ji as 'Chacha Phagu Mal Ji'. Bhai Phaggu Mal was overjoyed and took personal care of Guru Ji with his family and the Sangat during the Guru's stay at Sasaram.
From Benaras (Varanasi), Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji did not proceed directly to Patna Sahib but made a detour to Sasaram and Gaya. At Sasaram, about 80 kilometres southeast of Benaras along the main mughal Serai-Howarh railway line. There already existed a Sikh Sangat under the Bhai Phaggu Mal affectionately called Chacha (uncle) Phaggu by one and all. Guru Tegh Bahadur came here in order to meet Chacha Phaggu Mal.
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