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1919 Jallianwala Bagh Massacre







Jallianwala Bagh

The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, was a seminal event in the British rule of India. On 13 April 1919, a crowd of non-violent protesters, along with Vaisakhi pilgrims, had gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh garden in Amritsar, Punjab to protest the arrest of two leaders despite a curfew which had been recently declared.

On the orders of Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer (The Butcher of Amritsar), the army fired on the crowd for ten minutes, directing their bullets largely towards the few open gates through which people were trying to run out. The dead numbered +1,300, possibly more. This "brutality stunned the entire nation", resulting in a "wrenching loss of faith" of the general public in the intentions of Britain. The ineffective inquiry and the initial accolades for Dyer by the House of Lords fueled widespread anger, leading to the Non-cooperation movement of 1920–22.

Jallianwala Bagh

Entrance to the present-day Jallianwala Bagh.

On Sunday, 13 April 1919, Dyer was convinced of a major insurrection and he banned all meetings, however this notice was not widely disseminated. That was the day of Vaisakhi, the main Sikh gathering of the year at Amritsar, and many villagers had come to the Bagh.

On hearing that a meeting had assembled at Jallianwala Bagh, Dyer went with fifty Gurkha riflemen to a raised bank and ordered them to shoot at the unarmed villagers which included women and children. Dyer continued the firing for about ten minutes, until the ammunition supply was almost exhausted; Dyer stated that 1,650 rounds had been fired, a number which seems to have been derived by counting empty cartridge cases picked up by the troops.

Official British Indian sources gave a figure of 379 identified dead, with approximately 1,100 wounded. The casualty number estimated by the Indian National Congress was more than 1,500, with approximately 1,000 dead. Dyer was initially lauded by conservative forces in the empire, but in July 1920 he was censured and forced to retire by the House of Commons. He became a celebrated hero in Britain among most of the people connected to the British Raj, for example, the House of Lords, but unpopular in the House of Commons, that voted against Dyer twice.

The massacre caused a re-evaluation of the army's role, in which the new policy became "minimum force", and the army was retrained and developed suitable tactics for crowd control. Some historians consider the episode as a decisive step towards the end of British rule in India, although others believe that greater self-government was inevitable as a result of India's involvement in World War I.

Background

India during World War I

During World War I, British India contributed to the British war effort by providing men and resources. About 1.25 million Indian soldiers and labourers served in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, while both the Indian administration and the princes sent large supplies of food, money, and ammunition.

However, Bengal and Punjab remained sources of anticolonial activities. Revolutionary attacks in Bengal, associated increasingly with disturbances in Punjab, were significant enough to nearly paralyse the regional administration.

A pan-Indian mutiny in the British Indian Army, planned for February 1915, was the most prominent plan amongst a number of plots of the much larger Hindu–German Mutiny, formulated between 1914 and 1917 to initiate a Pan-Indian rebellion against the British Raj during World War I. The revolutionaries included the Indian nationalists in India, the United States and Germany, along with help from the Irish republicans and the German Foreign Office.

Jallianwala Bagh

The Jallianwalla Bagh in 1919, months after the massacre.

The plot originated on the onset of the World War, between the Ghadar Party in the United States, the Berlin Committee in Germany, the Indian revolutionary underground in British India and the German Foreign Office through the consulate in San Francisco. The planned February mutiny was ultimately thwarted when British intelligence infiltrated the Ghadarite movement, arresting key figures. Mutinies in smaller units and garrisons within India were also crushed.

After the War

In the aftermath of World War I, high casualty rates, increasing inflation compounded by heavy taxation, the deadly 1918 flu pandemic, and the disruption of trade during the war escalated human suffering in India. The costs of the protracted war in both money and manpower were great. In India, long the "jewel in the crown" of the British Empire, Indians were restless for independence. More than 43,000 Indian soldiers had died fighting for Britain.

Indian soldiers smuggled arms into India to fight British rule. The pre-war Indian nationalist sentiment, revived as moderate and extremist groups of the Indian National Congress, ended their differences in order to unify. In 1916, the Congress succeeded in establishing the Lucknow Pact, a temporary alliance with the All-India Muslim League.

Prelude to the Massacre

Ever since the Rebellion of 1857 British officials in India lived in fear of native conspiracies and revolts; they warned each other that the natives were most suspicious when they seemed superficially innocent.

Investigators at the time and historians since have found no conspiratorial links whatever to the events in Amritsar, but the British fears animated their responses—General Dyer believed a violent thrashing would dampen conspiracies—and afterwards he was hailed in Britain for having preempted an attack.

The events that ensued from the passage of the Rowlatt Act in 1919 were also influenced by activities associated with the Ghadar conspiracy. British Indian Army troops were returning from Europe and Mesopotamia to an economic depression in India.

The attempts at mutiny during 1915 and the Lahore conspiracy trials were still causing fear among the British. Rumours of young Mohajirs who fought on behalf of the Turkish Caliphate, and later, in the ranks of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War, were circulated in army circles. The Russian Revolution had also begun to influence Indians.

Jallianwala Bagh

Jallianwala Bagh well.

Ominously for the British, in 1919, the Third Anglo-Afghan War began and in India, Gandhi's call for protest against the Rowlatt Act achieved an unprecedented response of furious unrest and protests. The situation especially in Punjab was deteriorating rapidly, with disruptions of rail, telegraph and communication systems.

Many army officers believed revolt was possible, and they prepared for the worst. In Amritsar, more than 15,000 people gathered at Jallianwala Bagh. The British Lieutenant-Governor of Punjab, Michael O'Dwyer, is said to have believed that these were the early and ill-concealed signs of a conspiracy for a coordinated revolt around May, at a time when British troops would have withdrawn to the hills for the summer.

(Similiar to the 1984 Sikh genocide) The Amritsar massacre, as well as responses preceding and succeeding it, contrary to being an isolated incident, was the end result of a concerted plan of response from the Punjab administration to suppress such a conspiracy. James Houssemayne Du Boulay is said to have ascribed a direct relationship between the fear of a Ghadarite uprising in the midst of an increasingly tense situation in Punjab, and the British response that ended in the massacre.

On 10 April 1919, there was a protest at the residence of the Deputy Commissioner of Amritsar, a city in Punjab, a large province in the northwestern part of India. The demonstration was to demand the release of two popular leaders of the Indian Independence Movement, Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew, who had been earlier arrested by the government and moved to a secret location. Both were proponents of the Satyagraha movement led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.

A military picket shot at the crowd, killing several protesters and setting off a series of violent events. Later the same day, several banks and other government buildings, including the Town Hall and the railway station, were attacked and set afire. The violence continued to escalate, culminating in the deaths of at least five Europeans, including government employees and civilians. There was retaliatory shooting at crowds from the military several times during the day, and between eight and twenty people were killed.

On 11 April, Miss Marcella Sherwood, an English missionary, fearing for the safety of her pupils, was on her way to shut the schools and send the roughly 600 Indian children home. While cycling through a narrow street called the Kucha Kurrichhan, she was caught by a mob, pulled to the ground by her hair, beaten and kicked.

Miss Marcella Sherwood, was rescued by local Indians, including the father of one of her pupils, who hid her from the mob and then smuggled her to the safety of Gobindgarh fort.

After visiting Sherwood on 19 April, the Raj's local commander, General Dyer, issued an order requiring every Indian man using that street to crawl its length on his hands and knees. General Dyer later explained to a British inspector: "Some Indians crawl face downwards in front of their gods. I wanted them to know that a British woman is as sacred as a hindu god and therefore they have to crawl in front of her, too."

Jallianwala Bagh

British Genocide and Terrorism against unarmed civilians, including women and children.

The Butcher of Amritsar authorised the indiscriminate, public whipping of locals who came within lathi length of British policemen. Miss Marcella Sherwood later defended General Dyer, describing him "as the 'saviour' of the Punjab".

For the next two days, the city of Amritsar was quiet, but violence continued in other parts of the Punjab. Railway lines were cut, telegraph posts destroyed, government buildings burnt, and three Europeans murdered. By 13th April, the British government had decided to put most of the Punjab under martial law. The legislation restricted a number of civil liberties, including freedom of assembly; gatherings of more than four people were banned.

The Massacre

On 13 April, the traditional festival of Baisakhi, thousands of Sikhs, Muslims and Hindus gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh (garden) near the Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar.

An hour after the meeting began as scheduled at 16:30, Dyer arrived with a group of sixty-five Gurkha and twenty-five Baluchi soldiers into the Bagh. Fifty of them were armed with .303 Lee-Enfield bolt-action rifles. Dyer had also brought two armoured cars armed with machine guns; however, the vehicles were left outside, as they were unable to enter the Bagh through the narrow entrance.

Jallianwala Bagh

Lee Enfield .303 Bolt-action rifle.

The Jallianwala Bagh was surrounded on all sides by houses and buildings and had few narrow entrances. Most of them were kept permanently locked. The main entrance was relatively wide, but was guarded heavily by the troops backed by the armoured vehicles. The people had no-where to go and were boxed in like caged animals.

Dyer (without warning the crowd to disperse) blocked the main exits. He explained later that this act "was not to disperse the meeting but to punish the Indians for disobedience." Dyer ordered his troops to begin shooting toward the densest sections of the crowd to inflict maximum damage. Firing continued for approximately ten minutes. Cease-fire was ordered only when ammunition supplies were almost exhausted, after approximately 1,650 rounds were spent.

Many people died in stampedes at the narrow gates or by jumping into the solitary well on the compound to escape the shooting. A plaque, placed at the site after independence states that 120 bodies were removed from the well. The wounded could not be moved from where they had fallen, as a curfew was declared, and many more died during the night.

The number of deaths caused by the shooting is disputed. While the official figure given by the British inquiry into the massacre is 379 deaths, the method used by the inquiry has been subject to criticism. In July 1919, three months after the massacre, officials were tasked with finding who had been killed by inviting inhabitants of the city to volunteer information about those who had died.

This information was incomplete due to fear that those who participated would be identified as having been present at the meeting, and some of the dead may not have had close relations in the area. When interviewed by the members of the committee, a senior civil servant in the Punjab admitted that the actual figure could be higher.

Since the official figures were probably flawed regarding the size of the crowd (15,000–20,000), the number of rounds shot and the period of shooting, the Indian National Congress instituted a separate inquiry of its own, with conclusions that differed considerably from the Government's inquiry.

The casualty number quoted by the Congress was more than 1,500, with approximately 1,000 being killed. The Government tried to suppress information of the massacre, but news spread in India and widespread outrage ensued. Yet, the details of the massacre did not become known in Britain until December 1919.

Aftermath

Threatening language

Jallianwala Bagh

Lee Enfield .303 bullets.

The day after the massacre Kitchin, the Commissioner of Lahore as well as General Dyer, both used threatening language. The following is the English translation of Dyer's Urdu statement directed at the local residents of Amritsar on the afternoon of 14 April 1919, a day after the Amritsar massacre:

"You people know well that I am a Sepoy and soldier. Do you want war or peace? If you wish for a war, the Government is prepared for it, and if you want peace, then obey my orders and open all your shops; else I will shoot. For me the battlefield of France or Amritsar is the same. I am a military man and I will go straight. Neither shall I move to the right nor to the left. Speak up, if you want war? In case there is to be peace, my order is to open all shops at once. You people talk against the Government and persons educated in Germany and Bengal talk sedition. I shall report all these. Obey my orders. I do not wish to have anything else.

I have served in the military for over 30 years. I understand the Indian Sepoy and Sikh people very well. You will have to obey my orders and observe peace. Otherwise the shops will be opened by force and Rifles. You will have to report to me of the Badmash. I will shoot them. Obey my orders and open shops. Speak up if you want war? You have committed a bad act in killing the English. The revenge will be taken upon you and upon your children."

Crawling Order

Brigadier Dyer designated the spot where Marcella Sherwood was assaulted sacred and daytime pickets were placed at either end of the street. Anyone wishing to proceed in the street between 6am and 8pm was made to crawl the 200 yards (180 m) on all fours, lying flat on their bellies. The order was not required at night due to a curfew. The order effectively closed the street. The houses did not have any back doors and the inhabitants could not go out without climbing down from their roofs. This order was in effect from 19 April until 25 April 1919. No doctor or supplier was allowed in, resulting in the sick, that were shot, being unattended and left to die in Jallianwala Bagh massacre.

Reaction

After General Dyer reported to his superiors that he had been "confronted by a revolutionary army", Lieutenant-Governor Michael O'Dwyer wrote in a telegram sent to Dyer: "Your action is correct and the Lieutenant Governor approves." O'Dwyer requested that martial law should be imposed upon Amritsar and other areas, and this was granted by Viceroy Lord Chelmsford.

Jallianwala Bagh

Jallianwala Bagh bullet marked wall.

Both Secretary of State for War Winston Churchill and former Prime Minister H. H. Asquith however, openly condemned the attack. Churchill referring to it as "monstrous", while Asquith called it "one of the worst outrages in the whole of our history".

Winston Churchill, in the House of Commons debate of 8 July 1920, said, "The crowd was unarmed, except with bludgeons. It was not attacking anybody or anything… When fire had been opened upon it to disperse it, it tried to run away. Pinned up in a narrow place considerably smaller than Trafalgar Square, with hardly any exits, and packed together so that one bullet would drive through three or four bodies, the people ran madly this way and the other.

When the fire was directed upon the centre, they ran to the sides. The fire was then directed to the sides. Many threw themselves down on the ground, the fire was then directed down on the ground. This was continued to 8 to 10 minutes, and it stopped only when the ammunition had reached the point of exhaustion."

After Churchill's speech in the House of Commons debate, MPs voted 247 to 37 against Dyer and in support of the Government.

Rabindranath Tagore received the news of the massacre by 22 May 1919. He tried to arrange a protest meeting in Calcutta and finally decided to renounce his knighthood as "a symbolic act of protest". In the repudiation letter, dated 30 May 1919 and addressed to the Viceroy, Lord Chelmsford, he wrote "I ... wish to stand, shorn, of all special distinctions, by the side of those of my countrymen who, for their so called insignificance, are liable to suffer degradation not fit for human beings"

Gupta describes the letter written by Tagore as "historic". He writes that Tagore "renounced his knighthood in protest against the inhuman cruelty of the British Government to the people of Punjab", and he quotes Tagore's letter to the Viceroy "The enormity of the measures taken by the Government in the Punjab for quelling some local disturbances has, with a rude shock, revealed to our minds the helplessness of our position as British subjects in India ...

The very least that I can do for my country is to take all consequences upon myself in giving voice to the protest of the millions of my countrymen, surprised into a dumb anguish of terror. The time has come when badges of honour make our shame glaring in the incongruous context of humiliation..." English Writings Of Rabindranath Tagore Miscellaneous Writings Vol# 8 carries a facsimile of this hand written letter.

Cloake reports that despite the official rebuke, many Britons "thought him a hero for saving the rule of British law in India."

Dyer was met by Lieutenant-General Sir Havelock Hudson, who told him that he was relieved of his command. He was told later by the Commander-in-Chief in India, General Sir Charles Monro, to resign his post and that he would not be reemployed.

(Click on images to enlarge the view)

Many in Britain supported General Dyer. Rudyard Kipling, who claimed Dyer was "the man who saved India", started a benefit fund which raised over 26,000 pounds sterling, including 50 pounds contributed by Kipling himself. Dyer was, however, also heavily criticised both in Britain and India. Among those who spoke out against him were:

• Pandit Motilal Nehru, father of Jawahar Lal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, who called the massacre the "saddest and most revealing of all."
• Rabindranath Tagore, the first Asian Nobel Laureate and distinguished Indian educator, who renounced his knighthood in protest against the massacre and said, "a great crime has been done in the name of law in the Punjab."
• Sir Shankaran Nair who resigned his membership of the Viceroy's Executive Council in the Legislative Council of Punjab in protest to the massacre.
• Punjab Legistative Council members Nawab Din Murad and Kartar Singh, who described the massacre as "neither just nor humane."
• Charles Freer Andrews, an Anglican priest and friend of Gandhi, who termed the Jallianwala Bagh massacre as "cold-blooded massacre and inhumane."
• Brigadier-General Surtees who stated in the Dyer debate that "we hold India by force – undoubtedly by force."
• Edwin Samuel Montagu, the Secretary of State for India, who called it "a grave error in judgement."
• Winston Churchill, at the time Secretary of State for War, who called the massacre "an episode without precedent or parallel in the modern history of the British Empire... an extraordinary event, a monstrous event, an event which stands in singular and sinister isolation... the crowd was neither armed nor attacking." during a debate in the House of Commons,
• Herbert Asquith who observed: "There has never been such an incident in the whole annals of Anglo-Indian history nor I believe in the history of our empire since its very inception down to present day. It is one of the worst outrages in the whole of our history."
• B. G. Horniman who observed: "No event within living memory, probably, has made so deep and painful impression on the mind of the public in this country (England) as what came to be known as the Amritsar massacre."

The era of Michael O'Dwyer and Dyer has been deemed "an era of misdeeds of British administration in India."

During the Dyer debates in the Parliament of the United Kingdom, there was both praise and condemnation of Dyer. In 1920, the British Labour Party Conference at Scarborough unanimously passed a resolution denouncing the Amritsar massacre as a "cruel and barbarous action" of British officers in Punjab and called for their trial, recall of Michael O'Dwyer and Lord Chelmsford, the Viceroy, and the repealing of repressive legislation.

The Hunter Commission

On 14 October 1919, after orders issued by the Secretary of State for India, Edwin Montagu, the Government of India announced the formation of a committee of inquiry into the events in Punjab. Referred to as the Disorders Inquiry Committee, it was later more widely known as the Hunter Commission. It was named after the name of chairman, Lord William Hunter, former Solicitor-General for Scotland and Senator of the College of Justice in Scotland. The stated purpose of the commission was to "investigate the recent disturbances in Bombay, Delhi and Punjab, about their causes, and the measures taken to cope with them". The members of the commission were:

• Lord Hunter, Chairman of the Commission
• Mr. Justice George C. Rankin of Calcutta
• Sir Chimanlal Harilal Setalvad, Vice-Chancellor of Bombay University and advocate of the Bombay High Court
• Mr W.F. Rice, member of the Home Department
• Major-General Sir George Barrow, KCB, KCMG, GOC Peshawar Division
• Pandit Jagat Narayan, lawyer and Member of the Legislative Council of the United Provinces
• Mr. Thomas Smith, Member of the Legislative Council of the United Provinces
• Sardar Sahibzada Sultan Ahmad Khan, lawyer from Gwalior State
• Mr H.C. Stokes, Secretary of the Commission and member of the Home Department

Jallianwala Bagh

Jallianwala Bagh bullet marked wall.

After meeting in New Delhi on 29 October, the Commission took statements from witnesses over the following weeks. Witnesses were called in Delhi, Ahmedabad, Bombay and Lahore. Although the Commission as such was not a formally constituted court of law, meaning witnesses were not subject to questioning under oath, its members managed to elicit detailed accounts and statements from witnesses by rigorous cross-questioning. In general, it was felt the Commission had been very thorough in its enquiries. After reaching Lahore in November, the Commission wound up its initial inquiries by examining the principal witnesses to the events in Amritsar.

On 19 November, Dyer was called to appear before the Commission. Although his military superiors had suggested he be represented by legal counsel at the inquiry, Dyer refused this suggestion and appeared alone. Initially questioned by Lord Hunter, Dyer stated he had come to know about the meeting at the Jallianwala Bagh at 12:40 hours that day but did not attempt to prevent it.

Dyer stated that he had gone to the Bagh with the deliberate intention of opening fire if he found a crowd assembled there. Patterson says Dyer explained his sense of honour to the Hunter Commission by saying, "I think it quite possible that I could have dispersed the crowd without firing but they would have come back again and laughed, and I would have made, what I consider, a fool of myself." Dyer further reiterated his belief that the crowd in the Bagh was one of "rebels who were trying to isolate my forces and cut me off from other supplies. Therefore, I considered it my duty to fire on them and to fire well".

After Mr. Justice Rankin had questioned Dyer, Sir Chimanlal Setalvad followed, asking Dyer if;

"supposing the passage was sufficient to allow the armoured cars to go in, would you have opened fire with the machine guns?"

"I think probably, yes."

"In that case, the casualties would have been much higher?"

"Yes."

Dyer further stated that his intentions had been to strike terror throughout the Punjab and in doing so, reduce the moral stature of the "rebels". He said he did not stop the shooting when the crowd began to disperse because he thought it was his duty to keep shooting until the crowd dispersed, and that a little shooting would not do any good. In fact he continued the shooting until the ammunition was almost exhausted. He stated that he did not make any effort to tend to the wounded after the shooting: "Certainly not. It was not my job. Hospitals were open and they could have gone there."

Exhausted from the rigorous cross-examination questioning and ill, Dyer was then released. Over the next several months, while the Commission wrote its final report, the British press, as well as many MPs, turned hostile towards Dyer as the extent of the massacre and his statements at the inquiry became widely known. Lord Chelmsford refused to comment until the Commission had been wound up. In the meanwhile, Dyer, seriously ill with jaundice and arteriosclerosis, was hospitalised.

Although the members of the Commission had been divided by racial tensions following Dyer's statement, and though the Indian members had written a separate, minority report, the final report, comprising six volumes of evidence and released on 8 March 1920, unanimously condemned Dyer's actions. In "continuing firing as long as he did, it appears to us that General Dyer committed a grave error." Dissenting members argued that the martial law regime's use of force was wholly unjustified. "General Dyer thought he had crushed the rebellion and Sir Michael O'Dwyer was of the same view," they wrote, "(but) there was no rebellion which required to be crushed." The report concluded that:

Jallianwala Bagh

Narrow passage to the Jallianwala Bagh Garden
through which the shooting was conducted.

• Lack of notice to disperse from the Bagh in the beginning was an error

• The length of firing showed a grave error

• Dyer's motive of producing a sufficient moral effect was to be condemned

• Dyer had overstepped the bounds of his authority

• There had not been any conspiracy to overthrow British rule in the Punjab

The minority report of the Indian members further added that:

• Proclamations banning public meetings were insufficiently distributed

• There were innocent people in the crowd, and there had not been any violence in the Bagh beforehand

• Dyer should have either ordered his troops to help the wounded or instructed the civil authorities to do so

• Dyer's actions had been "inhuman and un-British" and had greatly injured the image of British rule in India.

The Hunter Commission did not impose any penal or disciplinary action because Dyer's actions were condoned by various superiors (later upheld by the Army Council). The Legal and Home Members on the Viceroy's Council ultimately decided that, though Dyer had acted in a callous and brutal way, military or legal prosecution would not be possible due to political reasons. However, he was finally found guilty of a mistaken notion of duty and relieved of his command on 23 March. He had been recommended for a CBE as a result of his service in the Third Afghan War; this recommendation was cancelled on 29 March 1920.

Demonstration at Gujranwala

Two days later, on 15 April, demonstrations occurred in Gujranwala protesting the killings at Amritsar. Police and aircraft were used against the demonstrators, resulting in 12 deaths and 27 injuries. The Officer Commanding the Royal Air Force in India, Brigadier General N D K MacEwen stated later that:

"I think we can fairly claim to have been of great use in the late riots, particularly at Gujranwala, where the crowd when looking at its nastiest was absolutely dispersed by a machine using bombs and Lewis guns."

Assassination of Michael O'Dwyer

On 13 March 1940, at Caxton Hall in London, Udham Singh, an Indian independence activist from Sunam who had witnessed the events in Amritsar and was himself wounded, shot and killed Michael O'Dwyer, the British Lieutenant-Governor of Punjab at the time of the massacre, who had approved Dyer's action and was believed to be the main planner. Dyer himself had died in 1927.

Jallianwala Bagh

Michael O'Dwyer ca. 1912.

The action by Singh was condemned generally, but some, such as the nationalist newspaper Amrita Bazar Patrika, also made positive statements. The common people and revolutionaries glorified the action of Udham Singh.

Much of the press worldwide recalled the story of Jallianwala Bagh and alleged Michael O'Dwyer to have been responsible for the massacre. Singh was termed a "fighter for freedom" and his action was referred to in The Times newspaper as "an expression of the pent-up fury of the down-trodden Indian People".

Rome at that time ascribed the greatest significance to the circumstances and praised the action of Udham Singh as courageous. The Berliner Börsen Zeitung termed the event "The torch of Indian freedom". German radio reportedly broadcast: "The cry of tormented people spoke with shots."

At a public meeting in Kanpur, a spokesman had stated that "at last an insult and humiliation of the nation had been avenged". Similar sentiments were expressed in numerous other places across the country.

Fortnightly reports of the political situation in Bihar mentioned: "It is true that we had no love lost for Sir Michael. The indignities he heaped upon our countrymen in Punjab have not been forgotten." In its 18 March 1940 issue Amrita Bazar Patrika wrote: "O'Dwyer's name is connected with Punjab incidents which India will never forget."

The New Statesman observed: "British conservativism has not discovered how to deal with Ireland after two centuries of rule. Similar comment may be made on British rule in India. Will the historians of the future have to record that it was not the Nazis but the British ruling class which destroyed the British Empire?" Singh had told the court at his trial:

I did it because I had a grudge against him. He deserved it. He was the real culprit. He wanted to crush the spirit of my people, so I have crushed him. For full 21 years, I have been trying to wreak vengeance. I am happy that I have done the job. I am not scared of death. I am dying for my country. I have seen my people starving in India under the British rule. I have protested against this, it was my duty. What a greater honour could be bestowed on me than death for the sake of my motherland? "

Singh was hanged for the murder on 31 July 1940. At that time, many, including Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, condemned the action of Udham as senseless but courageous. In 1952, Nehru (by then Prime Minister) honoured Udham Singh with the following statement which had appeared in the daily Partap:

"I salute Shaheed-i-Azam Udham Singh with reverence who had kissed the noose so that we may be free."

Soon after this recognition by the Prime Minister, Udham Singh received the title of Shaheed, a name given to someone who has attained martyrdom or done something heroic on behalf of their country or religion.

Monument and Legacy

A trust was founded in 1920 to build a memorial at the site after a resolution was passed by the Indian National Congress. In 1923, the trust purchased land for the project. A memorial, designed by American architect Benjamin Polk, was built on the site and inaugurated by President of India Rajendra Prasad on 13 April 1961, in the presence of Jawaharlal Nehru and other leaders. A flame was later added to the site.

The bullet marks remain on the walls and adjoining buildings to this day. The well into which many people jumped and drowned attempting to save themselves from the bullets is also a protected monument inside the park.

Formation of the Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee (SGPC)

Shortly following the massacre, the official Sikh clergy of the Golden Temple conferred upon General Dyer the Saropa (the mark of distinguished service to the Sikh faith or, in general, humanity), sending shock waves among the Sikh community. On 12 October 1920, students and faculty of the Amritsar Khalsa College called a meeting to demand the immediate removal of the Gurudwaras from the control of Mahants. The result was the formation of the Shiromani Gurudwara Prabhandak Committee on 15 November 1920 to manage and to implement reforms in Sikh gurdwaras.

Regret but No Apology for British Genocide and Terrorism

Jallianwala Bagh

Massacre memorial in Jallianwala
Bagh Garden, Amritsar.

Although Queen Elizabeth II had not made any comments on the incident during her state visits in 1961 and 1983, she spoke about the events at a state banquet in India on 13 October 1997:

"It is no secret that there have been some difficult episodes in our past – Jallianwala Bagh, which I shall visit tomorrow, is a distressing example. But history cannot be rewritten, however much we might sometimes wish otherwise. It has its moments of sadness, as well as gladness. We must learn from the sadness and build on the gladness."

On 14 October 1997 Queen Elizabeth II visited Jallianwala Bagh and paid her respects with a 30‑second moment of silence. During the visit, she wore a dress of a colour described as pink apricot or saffron, which was of religious significance to Hindus and Sikhs. She removed her shoes while visiting the monument and laid a wreath at the monument.

While some Indians welcomed the expression of regret and sadness in the Queen's statement, others criticised it for being less than an apology. Prime Minister of India Inder Kumar Gujral defended the Queen, saying that the Queen herself had not even been born at the time of the events and should not be required to apologise.

Winston Churchill, on the 8th July 1920, urged the House of Commons to punish General Dyer. Churchill succeeded in persuading the House to forcibly retire General Dyer, but Churchill would have preferred to see the general disciplined.

In February 2013 David Cameron became the first serving British Prime Minister to visit the site, laid a wreath at the memorial, and described the Amritsar massacre as "a deeply shameful event in British history, one that Winston Churchill rightly described at that time as monstrous. We must never forget what happened here and we must ensure that the UK stands up for the right of peaceful protests". Cameron did not deliver an official apology.

List Of Those Massacred

This is the official British list of people killed during the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre on 13th April 1919.

No.

Name and Parentage

Caste

Age

Residence

1

Gagan Nath s/o Ram Dass

Khatri

25

Amritsar City

2

Mohan Lal s/o Behna Mal

Khatri

48

Amritsar City

3

Shib Dayal s/o Solukhan Mal

Kamboh

50

Amritsar City

4

Vashno Dass s/o Damodar Dass

Khatri

55

Amritsar City

5

Hardiyal s/o Atara Mall

Kamboh

45

Amritsar City

6

Ram Das s/o Ganga Das

Kamboh

21

Amritsar City

7

Hira Nand s/o Chambha Mal

Khatri

50

Amritsar City

8

Bhula s/o Mathra Das

Rajput

20

Amritsar City

9

Bishan Das s/o Dhanpat Ram

Khatri

32

Amritsar City

10

Ganesh Singh s/o Kalu Mal

Arora

42

Amritsar City

11

Tirlok Das s/o Harjas Mal

Khatri

25

Amritsar City

12

Thakur s/o Prabh Diyal

Kaist

25

Amritsar City

13

Gian Chand s/o Kirpa Ram

Kamboh

15

Amritsar City

14

Harnama s/o Viroo

Barber

30

Amritsar City

15

Mohan Lal s/o Diya Ram

Khatri

42

Amritsar City

16

Hukam Chand s/o Pheru Mal

Khatri

33

Amritsar City

17

Nihal Chand s/o Tek Chand

Khatri

30

Amritsar City

18

Thakur Das s/o Malava Mal

Khatri

35

Amritsar City

19

Hari Ram s/o Asa Nand

Khatri

32

Amritsar City

20

Charn Das s/o Balak Ram

Khatri

36

Amritsar City

21

Ram Lubhaya s/o Chaju Ram

Khatri

17

Amritsar City

22

Ram Chand s/o Locha Ram

Arora

29

Amritsar City

23

Govind Ram s/o Sita Rani

Khatri

35

Amritsar City

24

Kan Chand s/o Hem Raj

Brahman

28

Amritsar City

25

Nikka s/o Koohi

Mehra

26

Amritsar City

26

Ram Dass s/o Jamet Singh

Zargar

28

Amritsar City

27

Rakha Mals/o Gujar Mal

Khatri

36

Amritsar City

28

Durga Das s/o Kanshi Ram

Khatri

23

Amritsar City

29

Wasu Mal s/o Narsing Das

Khatri

42

Amritsar City

30

Diyan Chand s/o Manss Ram

Khatri

26

Amritsar City

31

Mulak Raj s/o Jai Har Nand

Khatri

23

Amritsar City

32

Khushi Ram s/o Nikka Mal

Brahmin

28

Amritsar City

33

Chuni Lal s/o Budha Mal

Barber

29

Amritsar City

34

Devi Chand s/o Hari Ram

Khatri

30

Amritsar City

35

Roora s/o Ganga Ram

Khatri

42

Amritsar City

36

Kishan Chand s/o Amir Chand

Khatri

38

Amritsar City

37

Jai Narain s/o Bhagat Ram

Khatri

32

Amritsar City

38

Hira Nand s/o Maharaj Mal

Arora

45

Amritsar City

39

Muni Lal s/o Kaniya Lal

Khatri

40

Amritsar City

40

Panna Lal s/oRam Rakha

Khatri

18

Amritsar City

41

Tara Chand s/o Bahadur Mal

Khatri

63

Amritsar City

42

Thakur Das s/o Dina Nath

Khatri

35

Amritsar City

43

Palla s/o Megh Nath

Khatri

20

Amritsar City

44

Ram Gopal s/oSain Das

Khatri

32

Amritsar City

45

Moti Ram s/o Mela Ram

Khatri

42

Amritsar City

46

Ram Nath s/o Phagu Mal

Khatri

35

Amritsar City

47

Chet Ram s/o Narsing Das

Khatri

29

Amritsar City

48

Parma Nand s/o Maghi Mal

Khatri

50

Amritsar City

49

Vaso Mal s/o Sidhi Mal

Khatri

45

Amritsar City

50

Mansa Ram s/o Narsing Das

Khatri

25

Amritsar City

51

Sohan Lal s/o Vas Mall

Khatri

9

Amritsar City

52

Nur Mohd. s/o Buta

Rain

60

Amritsar City

53

Ahmad Din s/oDara Khan

Rajput

16

Amritsar City

54

Nathu s/o Jawahar

Dhobi

80

Amritsar City

55

 

 

 

 

56

 

 

 

 

57

 

 

 

 

58

 

 

 

 

59

Mohd. Sharif s/o Mohd. Mamzan

Mason

12

Amritsar City

60

Mohd. Ramzan s/o Rahim Bat

Kashmiri

24

Amritsar City

61

Barkat Ali s/o Alahi Bux

Turkhan

32

Amritsar City

62

Umar Baksh s/oIda

Kashmiri

60

Amritsar City

63

Gulam Mustafa s/o Jumma

Kashmiri

20

Amritsar City

64

Abdul Khaliq s/o Rahim Khan

Kashmiri

60

Amritsar City

65

Mohd. Ibrahim s/o Sikandar Ali

Sheikh

24

Amritsar City

66

Imam Din s/o Murad Bux

Lohar

50

Amritsar City

67

Shams Din s/o Sikandar Ali

Sheikh

24

Amritsar City

68

Mohd. Ismail s/o Miran Bux

Rajput

35

Amritsar City

69

Mohd. Sadiq s/o Murad Bux

Sheikh

25

Amritsar City

70

Hafiz s/o Ali Modh.

Sheikh

35

Amritsar City

71

Khuda Bux s/o Vasao Shah

Fakir

40

Amritsar City

72

Mohb. Bux

Mason

36

Amritsar City

73

 

 

 

 

74

Nathu s/o Gulab

Kamboh

8

Amritsar City

75

Karim

Chaukidar

40

Amritsar City

76

Miraj Din s/o Ladha

Kharasi

20

Amritsar City

77

Waris s/o Chirag Din

Arain

30

Amritsar City

78

Miran Bux s/oNikka

Kashmiri

30

Amritsar City

79

Palla s/o Gurditta

Sweeper

40

Amritsar City

80

Mahi s/o Lahna

Jat

35

Amritsar City

81

Rahmat s/o Nawab Din

Sheikh

21

Amritsar City

82

Mohd. Din

Zargar

20

Amritsar City

83

Girdhari Lal s/o Ganga Bishan

Brahmin

20

Amritsar City

84

Bal Mukand s/o Mangal Chand Nohria

Nohria

25

Amritsar City

85

Nur Mohd. s/o Jhandu

Teli

30

Amritsar City

86

Khair Din s/o Mangtu

Teli

30

Amritsar City

87

Mahbub Shah s/o Ahmed Shah

Sayyid

30

Amritsar City

88

Feroz s/o Sher Mohd.

Zargar

25

Amritsar City

89

Noor Mohd.

Weaver

22

Amritsar City

90

Abdulla s/o Pir Baksh

Dhobi

15

Amritsar City

91

Isao s/o Lehna Singh

Jat

20

Amritsar City

92

Sundhar Singh

Jat

19

Amritsar City

93

Bhag

Kamboh

19

Amritsar City

94

Sharaf Din s/o Sadr Din

Rajput

22

Amritsar City

95

Hira Singh s/o Nihal Singh

Sikh

24

Amritsar City

96

Basanta s/o Sarna

Sweeper

25

Amritsar City

97

Hamid s/o Ahmad Din

Kashmiri

19

Amritsar City

98

Ram Lal

Rajput

24

Amritsar City

99

Ghulam Rasul s/o Modh. Shah

Kashmiri

30

Amritsar City

100

Ghulam Mohiud Din s/o Mohd. Joo

Kashmiri

30

Amritsar City

101

Barkat s/o Behla

Sheikh

20

Amritsar City

102

Labhoo

Mohammedan

25

Amritsar City

103

Abdulla s/oLal Mohamed

Lohar

20

Amritsar City

104

Dheru

Gujjar

40

Amritsar City

105

Harbhagwan s/o Jairam Das

Arora

50

Amritsar City

106

Bura s/o Arura Singh

Tarkhan

20

Amritsar City

107

Kala Singh

Hindu

40

Amritsar City

108

Ram Lal

Khatri

25

Amritsar City

109

Bua Das

Khatri

25

Amritsar City

110

Kehar Singh

Saini

20

Amritsar City

111

Sobba Singh s/o Kharak Singh

Tarkhan

50

Amritsar City

112

Ram lal s/o Moti Ram

Tarkhan

22

Amritsar City

113

Kala Singh s/oGulab Singh

Tarkhan

50

Amritsar City

114

Bua Das s/o Fakir Chand

Khatri

22

Amritsar City

115

Kesar Singh s/o Gopal Singh

Hindu

15

Amritsar City

116

Nand Lal s/o Shiv Diyal

Brahmin

12

Amritsar City

117

Mohn Lal s/o Sham das

Hindu

60

Amritsar City

118

Moti Ram

Hindu

40

Amritsar City

119

Mohn Lal s/o Mani Khatri

Khatri

12

Amritsar City

120

Balwannt Singh s/o Arur Singh

Hindu

25

Amritsar City

121

Harnam Singh s/o Gulab Singh

Tarkhan

15

Amritsar City

122

Budh Singh

Hindu

70

Amritsar City

123

Gopal Singh s/o Mehr Singh

Hindu

30

Sathiala (Amritsar)

124

Ram Chand s/o Saran Das

Kargar

34

Sathiala (Amritsar)

125

Narain Singh s/o Diyal Singh

Arora

21

Sathiala (Amritsar)

126

Devi Diyal s/o Lachman Das

Hindu

25

Sathiala (Amritsar)

127

Thakur Singh

Arora

50

Sathiala (Amritsar)

128

Sundar Singh

Arora

30

Sathiala (Amritsar)

129

Kanshi

Arora

30

Sathiala (Amritsar)

130

Nathu

Arora

30

Sathiala (Amritsar)

131

Gopal Das s/o Prem Singh

Khatri

30

Sathiala (Amritsar)

132

Jwala Singh

Hindu

60

Sathiala (Amritsar)

133

Bhagat Ram s/oHira Lal

Hindu

60

Sialkot

134

Bhangan Shah

Hindu

50

Amritsar City

135

Mohan Lal s/oSham Das

Hindu

60

Amritsar Raya

136

Sobha Singh s/oSant Singh

Hindu

60

Sansi

137

Bhagat Salig Ram s/o Sant Jawala Singh

Sadh

60

Amritsar City

138

Permanand s/oDev Raj

Hindu

24

Amritsar City

139

Chanan

Hindu

20

Amritsar City

140

Guru Brahman

Brahmin

15

Amritsar City

141

Murli Mal s/o Lakhu Mal

Arora

70

Amritsar City

142

Girdhari

Brahman

20

Amritsar City

143

Hari lal s/o Bal Mukand

Khatri

30

Amritsar City

144

Nikmu Mall s/o Girdhari

Khatri

14

Amritsar City

145

Partapa

Arora

80

Amritsar City

146

Bhag s/o Sri Ram

Bhatia

40

Amritsar City

147

Sobha Singh

Tarkhan

55

Amritsar City

148

Gandoo s/o Nanak Chand

Khatri

18

Amritsar City

149

Chatroo

Sandhu

60

Amritsar City

150

Muni Lal s/o Devi Das

Brahmin

30

Amritsar City

151

Sojhan Singh s/oSahib Singh

Arora

22

Amritsar City

152

Dass s/o Nand Lal

Brahmin

19

Amritsar City

153

Biroo s/o Gathoo

Khatri

50

Amritsar City

154

Harman Singh

Khatri

30

Amritsar City

155

Billa

Khatri

18

Amritsar City

156

Hans Raj s/o Rohan Singh

Khatri

23

Amritsar City

157

Dhani Ram s/o Lorin Chand

Khatri

34

Amritsar City

158

Prabh Diyal s/oRam Rattan

Khatri

35

Amritsar City

159

Bal Mokand s/o Jai Ram Das

Arora

20

Amritsar City

160

Veshno Dass s/o Chuni Lal

Brahmin

30

Tarn Taran

161

Ahmad Villah s/o Kirim Baksh

Kashmiri

35

Amritsar City

162

Sant Ram s/o ShivRamdass

Brahmin

20

Amritsar, Varpal Village

163

Daulat Ram s/o Brij Lal

Aluwalia

27

Amritsar City

164

Jagdish

Brahmin

20

Amritsar City

165

Bau Ditta s/o Nathu Mal

Khatri

…..

Sarangedo, Tehsil Ajnala

166

Sadhu Ram

Hindu

…..

Sri Hargobindpur, Distt. Gurdaspur

167

Lal Singh

Kamboh

35

Amritsar City

168

Lalu s/o Sita

Arora

22

Amritsar City

169

Hari Ram s/o Hardiyal

Khatri

40

Amritsar City

170

Ram Singh s/o Jawahar Singh

Ramgarhia

21

Amritsar City

171

Faqir Chands/o Hakim Rai

Khatri

30

Amritsar City

172

Bakshish Singhs/o Ishar Singh

Jat

…..

Shamnagar, Distt, Amritsar

173

Jhanda Singh

Jat

…..

Kaimpur, Amritsar

174

Indar Singh

Jat

…..

Begewala, Distt. Amritsar

175

Hazari Singh s/o Dinna

Khatri

17

Amritsar City

176

Charan Das s/o Ras Chand

Hindu

…..

Amritsar City

177

Bhagwan Das s/o Shawl Merchant

Bhatia

…..

Amritsar City

178

Mehr Chand

Hindu

…..

Amritsar City

179

Viroo Mall

Hindu

…..

Amritsar City

180

Kishan Das

Hindu

…..

Amritsar City

181

Guran Ditta

Hindu

…..

Amritsar City

182

Chaju Ram

Hindu

…..

Amritsar City

183

Budha Singh

Sikh

…..

Amritsar City

184

Bhagwan Das s/o Charan Das

Arora

…..

Amritsar City

185

Mani Lal s/o Narsingh Das

Khatri

…..

Amritsar City

186

Ranu Nath s/o Lakhu

Khatri

…..

Amritsar City

187

Chuni Lal s/o Hari Lal

Arora

…..

Amritsar City

188

Kaniya Lal s/o Harbhagwan

Hindu

…..

Amritsar City

189

Pars Ram

Rajput

…..

Amritsar City

190

Kirpal Singh s/o Partap Singh

Arora

…..

Amritsar City

191

Kesar Singh s/o Chandumal

Hindu

…..

Amritsar City

192

Sundar Singh s/o Giyan Singh

Tarkhan

15

Amritsar City

193

Sita Ram s/o Gobindram

Hindu

…..

Amritsar City

194

Bhagat Singh s/o Kesar Singh

Jat

35

Jhugawan, Rupawali

195

NathaSingh s/o Chet Singh

Jat

20

Jhetuwal

196

Bhag Mal s/o Hari Ram

Arora

…..

Amritsar City

197

Arur Singh s/o Roda Singh

Tarkhan

…..

Vadula, Distt, Amritsar

198

Ganga Singh s/o Lal Singh

Jat

…..

Mahl, Distt. Amritsar

199

Viroo s/o Mian

Jalaha

…..

Makhanwind, Distt. Amritsar

200

Gopal Singh

Jat

…..

Vallah, Distt. Amritsar

201

Kartar Singh s/o Ganda Singh

Arora

40

Amritsar City

202

Gopal Singh

Khatri

…..

Sobhala Distt. Rawalpindi

203

Hemraj s/o Khemraj

Banya

…..

Amritsar City

204

Mul Singh s/o Kan Singh

Ramgarhia

…..

Amritsar City

205

Sohan Singh s/o Chandasingh

Jat

…..

Khorota, Distt. Rawalpindi

206

Kehar Singh s/o Ver Singh

Jat

…..

Sultanwind

207

Bibi har Kaur s/o Hardit Singh

Jatni

…..

Lopoke

208

Mangal Singh s/oIshan Singh

Jat

…..

Lohka, Distt. Amritsar

209

Dhirt Ram s/o Bilas Mal

Hindu

29

Amritsar City

210

Budha s/o Janni

Mohd.Sakka

…..

Jhita Kalan, Distt. Amritsar

211

Thakur Singh s/o Jawant Singh

Jat

…..

Mehma, Distt. Amritsar

212

Tehru s/o Asa Singh

Jat

…..

Varpal, Distt. Amritsar

213

Taroo s/o Jawala Singh

Jat

…..

Varpal, Distt. Amritsar

214

Viroo s/o Nathu

Bharai

…..

Varpal, Distt. Amritsar

215

Naina s/o Kunun

Mehra

…..

Vanchari, Distt. Amritsar

216

Vir Singh

Kamboh

…..

Devidass Pura, Distt. Amritsar

217

Bhagat Ram s/o Dhanni Ram

Khatri

17

Amritsar City

218

Chet Singh s/o Diyalu

Jat

…..

Kaler Guman, Distt. Amritsar

219

Labhu Ram s/o Sitaram

Banya

27

Amritsar City

220

Jawar Singh s/o Partab Singh

Arora

26

Amritsar City

221

Mangalaram s/o Gianimal

Hindu

…..

Amritsar City

222

Bishan Das s/o Gurditta Mal

Khatri

30

Amritsar City

223

Harbhagwan     

Hindu

…..

Mijith Mandi, Distt. Amritsar

224

Khikamal Alias Nikkamal c/o Dunichand Jairamdas

Hindu

…..

Amritsar City

225

Hukam Chand s/o Kalu Mal Shorimal

Hindu

…..

Amritsar City

226

Harman Singh c/o Kalumal Shori Mal

Hindu

…..

Amritsar City

227

Ram Chand

Hindu

…..

Amritsar City

228

Balmokand c/o Sitaram Mangal Chand

Hindu

…..

Amritsar City

229

Hari Ram Petition-Writer Amritsar

Hindu

…..

Amritsar City

230

Jagan Nath

Hindu

…..

Amritsar City

231

Mohan Lal Broker

Hindu

…..

Amritsar City

232

Rakha Mal

Hindu

…..

Amritsar City

233

Balmokand

Hindu

…..

Amritsar City

234

Tarachand, Woodseller

Hindu

…..

Amritsar City

235

Ramnath s/o Pagoomal

Khatri

…..

Amritsar City

236

Thakardas

Hindu

…..

Amritsar City

237

Mehrchand s/o Hat Sahai

Hindu

…..

Amritsar City

238

Arura

khatri

…..

Amritsar City

239

Sundar Singh s/o Gurbax Singh

Arora

…..

Amritsar City

240

Shafi, Kanjar

Mohammedan

…..

Amritsar City

241

Nanak Chand s/o Chuttamal

Khatri

…..

Amritsar City

242

Kashi Ram

Brahmin

…..

Amritsar City

243

Sundar s/o Natha Singh

Arora

25

Amritsar City

244

Santa s/o Hariram

Brahmin

…..

Varpal, Distt. Amritsar

245

Ilam Din

Mohammedan

…..

Bhilowal, Teh. Ajanla

246

Mangal Singh

Sadh

…..

Dhattal, Teh. Ajnala

247

Asa Singh s/o Ishar Singh

Jat

…..

Ramoki Baskarke, Distt. Amritsar

248

Harman Singh s/o Tehal Singh

Kumhar

…..

Gunanpura, Distt. Amritsar

249

Bishen Singh s/o Mit Singh

Jat

…..

Chabba, Distt. Amritsar

250

Lachman Singh s/o Dyal Singh

Jat

60

Chabba, Distt. Amritsar

251

Rukn Din s/o Ilahi Bax

Mochi

…..

Thanda Distt. Amritsar

252

Khushal Singh s/o Jiwan Singh

Jat

…..

Fatehpur, Distt. Amritsar

253

Ujagar Singh s/o Badh Singh

Jat

…..

Mehanpur, Distt. Amritsar

254

Sureina s/o Kharku

Sweeper

…..

Mehanpur, Distt. Amritsar

255

Ujagar Singh s/o Wadhawa Singh

Jat

…..

Dhand, Teh. Tarn Taran

256

Partap Singh s/o Tehl Singh

Jat

…..

Dhand, Teh. Tarn Taran

257

Prem Singh s/o Nathasingh

Jat

…..

Kaler Mangal, Teh. Amritsar

258

Chanan s/o Bhagat Ram

Hindu

…..

Majitha, Distt. Amritsar

259

Karin Din

Lohar

…..

Sohain Kalan, Distt Amritsar

260

Tirlok Chand s/o Balmokand

Khatri

…..

Amritsar City

261

Bur Singh s/o Jhanda Singh

Jat

…..

Jhanke, Teh. Tarn Taran

262

Madan Mohan s/o Dr. Mani Ram

Khatri

…..

Amirtsar City

263

Ami Chand s/o Pirthi Nath

Brahmin

…..

Muradpura, Teh. Amritsar

264

Mst. Bisso, Sister of Jamandar Sher Singh

Jat

50

Sultanwind, Teh. Amritsar

265

Budha Singh s/o Amar Singh

Jat

45

Tung, Distt. Gurdaspur

266

Gulam Rasul s/o Dulla

Mohd.

…..

Chabhal, Distt. Amritsar

267

Ganda Singh s/o Shamsingh

Jat

…..

Killa Jiwan Singh, Distt. Amritsar

268

Gauri Shankar s/o Kishan Diyal

Hindu

…..

Batala, Distt. Gurdaspur

269

Bhagat Ram

Hindu

35

Gadi Guru Jawalasingh Distt. Montgomery

270

Hiranand, Petition Writer

Hindu

…..

Ajnala

271

Hansraj s/o Sohan

Hindu

…..

Pipli, Teh. Batala

272

Hukan Singh s/o Ganda Singh

Hindu

30

Madoki,Teh. Anjala

273

Dita Ram s/o Harichand

Arora

…..

Miyali, Riya, Distt. Sialkot

274

Ditt Mal s/o Buta Mal

Arora

40

Jiwan Bhinder, Riya, Distt. Gurdaspur

275

Kartar Singh s/o Gandasingh

Arora

…..

Mangat Bhim, Distt. Gujrat

276

Kehar Singh s/o Sham Singh

Arora

40

Her Bhakna, Distt. Amritsar

277

Kahan Chand s/o Hem Raj

Arora

…..

Gurdaspur

278

Bishan singh s/o lamburdar

Arora

…..

Chabha, Distt. Amritsar

279

Kanshiram s/o Motiram

Saini

21

Bahlolpur, Distt. Gurdaspur

280

Kirpa Ram s/o Ganga Ram

Brahmin

26

Kot Karam Chand, Distt. Gurdaspur

281

kanshi Ram s/o Mathuradas

Brahmin

53

Talwindi Phindran, Distt. Sialkot

282

Lachman Singh s/o Harya Singh

Brahmin

28

Muradpura, Teh. Amritsar

283

Mangal Dass s/o Diyaloo

Bairagi

25

Chabhal,Teh. Tarn Taran

284

Madho s/o Raja

Barber

22

Narowal, Distt. Sailkot

285

Nathoo s/o Jit Singh

Jat

22

Jethowal, Teh. Amritsar

286

Natha Singh s/o Jawala Singh

Jat

30

Jagatpur, Teh. Tarn Taran

287

Nanak Chand s/o Rajasingh

Jat

…..

Kot Sadiqui, Distt. Kambelpur

288

Sundar Singg s/o Nathu

Jat

…..

Khutra Kalan, Teh. Ajnala

289

Surjan Singh

Jat

30

Chak Sikandar, Distt. Amritsar

290

Sohan Singh s/o Mohansingh

Carpenter

15

Lalo Ghuman, Teh. Tarn Taran

291

Thakur s/o Mula Singh

Jat

…..

Pathan Nagar, Teh. Ajnala

292

Teja Singh's son

Jat

…..

Bhala Pind, Teh. Ajnala

293

Tara Singh s/o Jhanda Singh

Jat

15

Musa, Teh. Tarn Taran

294

Arur Chand

Khatri

…..

Amritsar City

295

Abdul Hamid s/o Ahmaddin

Kashmiri

16

Amritsar City

296

Abdul Gafur Carpet maker

Kashmiri

…..

Amritsar City

297

Amir

Ghumiar

…..

Amritsar City

298

Veshno Das s/o Mohrajmal

Ghumiar

…..

Ladhewal, Teh. Tarn Taran

299

Bhag

Ghumiar

…..

Amritsar City

300

Bhagwan s/o Nihal Chand

Arora

45

Amritsar City

301

Chuni Lal

Arora

…..

Amritsar City

302

Churanji Lal s/o Nathu Ram

Arora

…..

Amritsar City

303

Charan Das s/oRama Nand

Arora

…..

Amritsar City

304

Dwarka Dass s/o Sitaram

Khatri

22

Amritsar City

305

Daulat Ram

Arora

…..

Amritsar City

306

Diwan Chand s/o Dhani Ram

Khatri

35

Amritsar City

307

Dass s/o Damodar

Brahmin

25

Amritsar City

308

Datt Dabkai

Mohd.

40

Amritsar City

309

Data Mal s/o Narsigh Dass

Mohd.

…..

Amritsar City

310

Devi Ditta

Brahmin

…..

Amritsar City

311

Dass Mall s/o Jamet Singh

Zargar

…..

Amritsar City

312

Faquir Chand s/o Nanakchand

Arora

45

Amritsar City

313

Harnam Singh s/o Bhagat Singh

Arora

17

Amritsar City

314

Hira Lal s/o Charmanlal

Arora

55

Amritsar City

315

Hukam Singh s/o Jagatsingh

Carpenter

…..

Amritsar City

316

Har Natain

Khatri

…..

Amritsar City

317

Harman Singh s/o Chanda Singh

Arora

20

Amritsar City

318

Har Bhagwan s/o Kanahiya Lal

Arora

…..

Amritsar City

319

Haru mal c/o Labhumal Satawala

…..

…..

Amritsar City

320

Hira Nand c/o Wazira

…..

…..

Amritsar City

321

Hansraj ,Postal Clerk

…..

…..

Amritsar City

322

Hussi s/o Sikkanda

Zargar

…..

Amritsar City

323

Ismail s/o Kiran Bux

Zargar

22

Amritsar City

324

Ibrahim s/o Imam Din

…..

25

Amritsar City

325

Jagan Nath s/o BalKishan Mehra

…..

…..

Amritsar City

326

Kashmir Singh

…..

…..

Amritsar City

327

Karam Chand s/o Labhu

Arora

21

Amritsar City

328

Kishan Chand s/o Ami Chand

Khatri

40

Amritsar City

329

Kalu Mal s/o Veshno Dass

…..

…..

Amritsar City

330

Kaka Singh s/o Nihala

Chimba

23

Amritsar City

331

Kadoo s/o Vashnodass

Brahmin

18

Amritsar City

332

Kashmiri Singh

…..

…..

Amritsar City

333

Labhu Ram s/o Chaju Ram

Khatri

14

Amritsar City

334

Lachman Kar

…..

…..

Amritsar City

335

Mohd. Shafi.s/o Rahim Bux

Kashmiri

19

Amritsar City

336

Mangal Singh s/o Kanbia Mal

Kashmiri

…..

Amritsar City

337

Murli

…..

…..

Amritsar City

338

Miraj Din s/o Nabi Bux

Kharasi

18

Amritsar City

339

Manak Chand s/o Ataromal

…..

…..

Amritsar City

340

Mela Ram s/o Mathuradas

…..

…..

Amritsar City

341

Mehru Mal s/o Ramsahai

…..

…..

Amritsar City

342

Mullan s/o Rahim Bux

Kashmiri

40

Amritsar City

343

Mul Singh s/o Mana Singh

Carpenter

20

Amritsar City

344

Meva Singh s/o Hakim Singh

…..

…..

Amritsar City

345

Madho

Barber

…..

Amritsar City

346

Mulak Raj s/o Nand Lal

Saraf

…..

Amritsar City

347

Manon s/o Per Bux

Saka

…..

Amritsar City

348

Mehr Chand

…..

…..

Amritsar City

349

Multani c/oL. Devki Nandan

…..

…..

Amritsar City

350

Mukhul c/o Phul Badshah

…..

…..

Amritsar City

351

Muni Lal s/o Ram Rakha Mal

Khatri

17

Amritsar City

352

Mela

…..

…..

Amritsar City

353

Mota Ram

Dalal

…..

Amritsar City

354

Mohan Lal s/o Ramsingh

Arora

19

Amritsar City

355

Musa s/o Jamal Din

Mohd.

16

Amritsar City

356

Nathu Ram s/o Mula Mal

Brahmin

30

Amritsar City

357

Nand s/o Karam Chand

Brahmin

…..

Amritsar City

358

Narain Singh s/o Hardiyal Singh

Arora

…..

Amritsar City

359

Murli Mal s/o Nathumal

…..

12

Amritsar City

360

Nand Laal s/o Mela Ram

Brahmin

16

Amritsar City

361

Nathu s/o Govind Ram

…..

…..

Amritsar City

362

Palla Dalal s/o Nanakchand

…..

…..

Amritsar City

363

Puran Chand s/o NathaSIngh

…..

…..

Amritsar City

364

Prabh Diyal s/o L.Tirath Ram

Pleader

…..

Amritsar City

365

Prabh Diyal s/o Sita Ram

Arora

19

Amritsar City

366

Ram Saran s/o Kaka Ram

Khatri

28

Amritsar City

367

Rura Ram s/o Kaka Ram

Khatri

22

Amritsar City

368

Ram Gopal s/oSain Das

Khatri

…..

Amritsar City

369

Ram Gopal s/o Sain Das

…..

30

Amritsar City

370

Ramzan Batt s/o Bahim Batt

Mohd.

40

Amritsar City

371

Sher Singh s/o Hira Singh

Arora

72

Amritsar City

372

Sant Ram s/o Prabh Diyal

…..

23

Amritsar City

373

Sobha Singh

…..

…..

Amritsar City

374

Sant Ram s/o Hari Ram

…..

…..

Amritsar City

375

Sadiq s/o Miraj Bux

…..

…..

Amritsar City

376

Sher Singh s/o Hira Singh

…..

17

Amritsar City

377

Sundar Singh s/o Nihal

Jat

35

Amritsar City

378

Umar Din s/o Din Mohd.

Mohd

…..

Amritsar City

379

Wassu Mal s/o Sitaram

Arora

32

Amritsar City

380

Warris s/o Allai Kasai

Mohd.

40

Amritsar City

381

Nihal Singh s/o Hatnam Singh

Jat

35

Amritsar City






Guide To Discover Sikhism